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ggnewscale tries to make it painless to use multiple scales in ggplot2. Although originally intended to use with colour and fill, it should work with any aes, such as shape, linetype and the rest.

ggnewscale: spend 400% more time tweaking your ggplot!

For another way of defining multiple scales, you can also try relayer.

How to install

You can install ggnewscale from CRAN with:


Or the development version with:

# install.packages("devtools")

How to cite

If you use ggnewscale in a publication, I’ll be grateful if you cited it. To get the suggested citation for this (and any other R package) you can use:

#> To cite ggnewscale in publications use:
#>   Campitelli E (????). _ggnewscale: Multiple Fill and Colour Scales in
#>   'ggplot2'_. doi:10.5281/zenodo.2543762
#>   <>, R package version 0.5.0.
#> A BibTeX entry for LaTeX users is
#>   @Manual{R-ggnewscale,
#>     title = {ggnewscale: Multiple Fill and Colour Scales in 'ggplot2'},
#>     author = {Elio Campitelli},
#>     note = {R package version 0.5.0},
#>     doi = {10.5281/zenodo.2543762},
#>   }

If you use knitr, you can automate this with

knitr::write_bib(c("ggnewscale"), "packages.bib")

And then add citations with @R-ggnewscale.

Click to see a list of some publications that have cited ggnewscale. Thanks!

[1] Application of Rapid Diagnostics and Next-Generation Amplicon Sequencing to Address Product Quality in the Food Industry - ProQuest. Jun. 28, 2023. (Visited on 06/28/2023).

[2] Integrated Analysis of Hub Genes and miRNA- Transcription Factor-Hub Gene Interaction Network in Necrotizing Enterocolitis. Apr. 2023. DOI: 10.21203/ (Visited on 04/12/2023).

[3] Nutrigonometry II: Experimental Strategies to Maximize Nutritional Information in Multidimensional Performance Landscapes - Morimoto - 2022 - Ecology and Evolution - Wiley Online Library. Aug. 08, 2022. (Visited on 08/08/2022).

[4] Rifaximin Prophylaxis Causes Resistance to the Last-Resort Antibiotic Daptomycin medRxiv. Mar. 10, 2023. (Visited on 03/10/2023).

[5] Study on the Mechanism of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Based on Bioinformatics. Jul. 2023. DOI: 10.21203/ (Visited on 07/19/2023).

[6] Using Stochastic Point Pattern Analysis to Track Regional Orientations of Magmatism During the Transition to Cenozoic Extension and Rio Grande Rifting, Southern Rocky Mountains - Rosera - 2024 - Tectonics - Wiley Online Library. Feb. 12, 2024. (Visited on 02/12/2024).

[7] E. Akhil Prakash, T. Hromádková, T. Jabir, et al. “Dissemination of Multidrug Resistant Bacteria to the Polar Environment - Role of the Longest Migratory Bird Arctic Tern (Sterna Paradisaea)”. In: Science of The Total Environment (Dec. 2021), p. 152727. ISSN: 0048-9697. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152727. (Visited on 01/03/2022).

[8] R. AminiTabrizi, R. M. Wilson, J. D. Fudyma, et al. “Controls on Soil Organic Matter Degradation and Subsequent Greenhouse Gas Emissions Across a Permafrost Thaw Gradient in Northern Sweden”. In: Front. Earth Sci. 8 (2020). ISSN: 2296-6463. DOI: 10.3389/feart.2020.557961. (Visited on 03/03/2021).

[9] D. Baker, J. Lauer, A. Ortega, et al. “Effects of Phycosphere Bacteria on Their Algal Host Are Host Species-Specific and Not Phylogenetically Conserved”. In: Microorganisms 11.1 (Jan. 2023), p. 62. ISSN: 2076-2607. DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms11010062. (Visited on 12/28/2022).

[10] L. Baumgarten, B. Pieper, B. Song, et al. “Pan-European Study of Genotypes and Phenotypes in the Arabidopsis Relative Cardamine Hirsuta Reveals How Adaptation, Demography, and Development Shape Diversity Patterns”. In: PLOS Biology 21.7 (Jul. 2023), p. e3002191. ISSN: 1545-7885. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3002191. (Visited on 07/24/2023).

[11] J. Bosch, P. T. Dobbler, T. Větrovský, et al. “Decomposition of Fomes Fomentatius Fruiting Bodies - Transition of Healthy Living Fungus into a Decayed Bacteria-Rich Habitat Is Primarily Driven by Arthropoda”. In: FEMS Microbiology Ecology (Mar. 2024), p. fiae044. ISSN: 0168-6496. DOI: 10.1093/femsec/fiae044. (Visited on 04/05/2024).

[12] J. Botero, C. Peeters, E. De Canck, et al. “A Comparative Genomic Analysis of _Fructobacillus__ Evanidus_ Sp. Nov. from Bumble Bees”. In: Systematic and Applied Microbiology (Mar. 2024), p. 126505. ISSN: 0723-2020. DOI: 10.1016/j.syapm.2024.126505. (Visited on 03/29/2024).

[13] J. Botero, A. S. Sombolestani, M. Cnockaert, et al. “A Phylogenomic and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Commensalibacter, a Versatile Insect Symbiont”. In: Animal Microbiome 5.1 (Apr. 2023), p. 25. ISSN: 2524-4671. DOI: 10.1186/s42523-023-00248-6. (Visited on 05/02/2023).

[14] I. N. Boys, A. G. Johnson, M. R. Quinlan, et al. “Structural Homology Screens Reveal Host-Derived Poxvirus Protein Families Impacting Inflammasome Activity”. In: Cell Reports 42.8 (Aug. 2023), p. 112878. ISSN: 2211-1247. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112878. (Visited on 07/30/2023).

[15] I. N. Boys, A. G. Johnson, M. Quinlan, et al. Structural Homology Screens Reveal Poxvirus-Encoded Proteins Impacting Inflammasome-Mediated Defenses. Feb. 2023. DOI: 10.1101/2023.02.26.529821. (Visited on 03/02/2023).

[16] S. Bruns, S. Al Hameli, E. Sulanke, et al. “A Wandering Wedgefish Illustrates the Need for Cooperative Elasmobranch Conservation in the Arabian Gulf”. In: Environ Biol Fish (Mar. 2024). ISSN: 1573-5133. DOI: 10.1007/s10641-024-01531-4. (Visited on 03/09/2024).

[17] N. H. Buitendijk and B. A. Nolet. “Timing and Intensity of Goose Grazing: Implications for Grass Height and First Harvest”. In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 357 (Nov. 2023), p. 108681. ISSN: 0167-8809. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2023.108681. (Visited on 07/25/2023).

[18] L. F. Camacho, J. E. Ávila, and C. Flórez-V. “Mechanisms Preventing Animals to Achieve Buoyant Flight”. In: Journal of Natural History 58.9-12 (Mar. 2024), pp. 440-448. ISSN: 0022-2933. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2024.2322178. (Visited on 03/29/2024).

[19] M. E. Carey, Z. A. Dyson, D. J. Ingle, et al. “Global Diversity and Antimicrobial Resistance of Typhoid Fever Pathogens: Insights from a Meta-Analysis of 13,000 Salmonella Typhi Genomes”. In: eLife 12 (Sep. 2023), p. e85867. ISSN: 2050-084X. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.85867. (Visited on 09/19/2023).

[20] H. Chen, G. Chew, N. Devapragash, et al. “The E3 Ubiquitin Ligase WWP2 Regulates Pro-Fibrogenic Monocyte Infiltration and Activity in Heart Fibrosis”. In: Nat Commun 13.1 (Nov. 2022), p. 7375. ISSN: 2041-1723. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-34971-6. (Visited on 12/03/2022).

[21] T. Chen, Y. Lei, M. Li, et al. “Network Pharmacology to Unveil the Mechanism of Suanzaoren Decoction in the Treatment of Alzheimer’s with Diabetes”. In: Hereditas 161.1 (Jan. 2024), p. 2. ISSN: 1601-5223. DOI: 10.1186/s41065-023-00301-z.

[22] H. Danlin, T. Chao, S. Zhenjie, et al. “Potential Synergistic Regulation of Hsp70 and Antioxidant Enzyme Genes in Pyropia Yezoensis under High Temperature Stress”. In: Algal Research (Jan. 2024), p. 103375. ISSN: 2211-9264. DOI: 10.1016/j.algal.2023.103375. (Visited on 01/16/2024).

[23] X. Ding, K. Liu, Q. Yan, et al. “Sugar and Organic Acid Availability Modulate Soil Diazotroph Community Assembly and Species Co-Occurrence Patterns on the Tibetan Plateau”. In: Appl Microbiol Biotechnol (Oct. 2021). ISSN: 1432-0614. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-021-11629-9. (Visited on 10/21/2021).

[24] T. G. Drivas, A. Lucas, and M. D. Ritchie. “eQTpLot: A User-Friendly R Package for the Visualization of Colocalization between eQTL and GWAS Signals”. In: BioData Mining 14.1 (Jul. 2021), p. 32. ISSN: 1756-0381. DOI: 10.1186/s13040-021-00267-6. (Visited on 07/21/2021).

[25] K. Giannakis, S. J. Arrowsmith, L. Richards, et al. “Evolutionary Inference across Eukaryotes Identifies Universal Features Shaping Organelle Gene Retention”. In: Cell Systems (Sep. 2022). ISSN: 2405-4712. DOI: 10.1016/j.cels.2022.08.007. (Visited on 09/19/2022).

[26] R. B. Gorodnichev, M. A. Kornienko, M. V. Malakhova, et al. “Isolation and Characterization of the First Zobellviridae Family Bacteriophage Infecting Klebsiella Pneumoniae”. In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24.4 (Jan. 2023), p. 4038. ISSN: 1422-0067. DOI: 10.3390/ijms24044038. (Visited on 02/20/2023).

[27] M. C. Granovetter, L. Ettensohn, and M. Behrmann. “With Childhood Hemispherectomy, One Hemisphere Can Support-But Is Suboptimal for-Word and Face Recognition”. In: bioRxiv (Nov. 2020), p. 2020.11.06.371823. DOI: 10.1101/2020.11.06.371823. (Visited on 03/03/2021).

[28] C. Higgs, L. S. Kumar, K. Stevens, et al. “Comparison of Contemporary Invasive and Non-Invasive Streptococcus Pneumoniae Isolates Reveals New Insights into Circulating Anti-Microbial Resistance Determinants”. In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 0.0 (Oct. 2023), pp. e00785-23. DOI: 10.1128/aac.00785-23. (Visited on 10/23/2023).

[29] C. Higgs, L. S. Kumar, K. Stevens, et al. “Population Structure, Serotype Distribution and Antibiotic Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Causing Invasive Disease in Victoria, Australia”. In: Microbial Genomics 9.7 (2023), p. 001070. ISSN: 2057-5858. DOI: 10.1099/mgen.0.001070. (Visited on 07/25/2023).

[30] R. Hill, M. Grey, M. O. Fedi, et al. Evolutionary Genomics Reveals Variation in Structure and Genetic Content Implicated in Virulence and Lifestyle in the Genus Gaeumannomyces. Feb. 2024. DOI: 10.1101/2024.02.15.580261. (Visited on 02/20/2024).

[31] A. T. Hinsu, K. J. Panchal, R. J. Pandit, et al. “Characterizing Rhizosphere Microbiota of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea L.) from Pre-Sowing to Post-Harvest of Crop under Field Conditions”. In: Sci Rep 11.1 (Aug. 2021), p. 17457. ISSN: 2045-2322. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-97071-3. (Visited on 09/06/2021).

[32] T. Hinzke, F. Tanneberger, C. Aggenbach, et al. “Response Patterns of Fen Sedges to a Nutrient Gradient Indicate Both Geographic Origin-Specific Genotypic Differences and Phenotypic Plasticity”. In: Wetlands 42.8 (Nov. 2022), p. 113. ISSN: 1943-6246. DOI: 10.1007/s13157-022-01629-4. (Visited on 11/24/2022).

[33] M. Jenckel, I. Smith, T. King, et al. “Distribution and Genetic Diversity of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild and Domestic Rabbits in Australia”. In: Pathogens 10.12 (Dec. 2021), p. 1637. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens10121637. (Visited on 12/21/2021).

[34] H. Jentsch and J. Weidinger. “Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Valley Wind Systems in the Complex Mountain Topography of the Rolwaling Himal, Nepal”. In: Atmosphere 13.7 (Jul. 2022), p. 1138. ISSN: 2073-4433. DOI: 10.3390/atmos13071138. (Visited on 08/01/2022).

[35] B. Jiang, D. M. Weinstock, K. A. Donovan, et al. “ITK Degradation to Block T Cell Receptor Signaling and Overcome Therapeutic Resistance in T Cell Lymphomas”. In: Cell Chemical Biology 0.0 (Apr. 2023). ISSN: 2451-9456, 2451-9448. DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2023.03.007. (Visited on 04/07/2023).

[36] X. Jin, F. B. Yu, J. Yan, et al. “Culturing of a Complex Gut Microbial Community in Mucin-Hydrogel Carriers Reveals Strain- and Gene-Associated Spatial Organization”. In: Nat Commun 14.1 (Jun. 2023), p. 3510. ISSN: 2041-1723. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-023-39121-0. (Visited on 06/17/2023).

[37] P. M. Joubert. “Catching up to Fungal Plant Pathogens: A Characterization of Extrachromosomal Circular DNAs and Gene Presence Absence Variation in Magnaporthe Oryzae”. PhD thesis. UC Berkeley, 2023. (Visited on 09/28/2023).

[38] P. M. Joubert and K. V. Krasileva. Distinct Genomic Contexts Predict Gene Presence-Absence Variation in Different Pathotypes of a Fungal Plant Pathogen. Feb. 2023. DOI: 10.1101/2023.02.17.529015. (Visited on 02/20/2023).

[39] M. Jung, D. Wells, J. Rusch, et al. “Unified Single-Cell Analysis of Testis Gene Regulation and Pathology in Five Mouse Strains”. In: eLife 8 (Jun. 2019). Ed. by D. Bourc’his, P. J. Wittkopp and S. Lukassen, p. e43966. ISSN: 2050-084X. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.43966. (Visited on 03/03/2021).

[40] T. Karasaki, D. A. Moore, S. Veeriah, et al. “Evolutionary Characterization of Lung Adenocarcinoma Morphology in TRACERx”. In: Nat Med (Apr. 2023), pp. 1-13. ISSN: 1546-170X. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-023-02230-w. (Visited on 04/14/2023).

[41] N. Khan, H. T. T. Nguyen, S. Galelli, et al. “Increasing Drought Risks Over the Past Four Centuries Amidst Projected Flood Intensification in the Kabul River Basin (Afghanistan and Pakistan)-Evidence From Tree Rings”. In: Geophysical Research Letters 49.24 (2022), p. e2022GL100703. ISSN: 1944-8007. DOI: 10.1029/2022GL100703. (Visited on 05/09/2023).

[42] M. Kornienko, D. Bespiatykh, M. Malakhova, et al. “PCR Assay for Rapid Taxonomic Differentiation of Virulent Staphylococcus Aureus and Klebsiella Pneumoniae Bacteriophages”. In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences 24.5 (Jan. 2023), p. 4483. ISSN: 1422-0067. DOI: 10.3390/ijms24054483. (Visited on 03/02/2023).

[43] S. Kudrenko, J. Vollering, A. Zedrosser, et al. “Walking on the Dark Side: Anthropogenic Factors Limit Suitable Habitat for Gray Wolf (Canis Lupus) in a Large Natural Area Covering Belarus and Ukraine”. In: Global Ecology and Conservation (Jul. 2023), p. e02586. ISSN: 2351-9894. DOI: 10.1016/j.gecco.2023.e02586. (Visited on 07/27/2023).

[44] A. Lan, K. Kang, S. Tang, et al. “Fine-Scale Population Structure and Demographic History of Han Chinese Inferred from Haplotype Network of 111,000 Genomes”. In: bioRxiv (Jul. 2020), p. 2020.07.03.166413. DOI: 10.1101/2020.07.03.166413. (Visited on 03/03/2021).

[45] Z. Lapp, R. Crawford, A. Miles-Jay, et al. “Regional Spread of blaNDM-1-containing Klebsiella Pneumoniae ST147 in Post-Acute Care Facilities”. In: Clinical Infectious Diseases (May. 2021). ISSN: 1058-4838. DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciab457. (Visited on 05/21/2021).

[46] L. S. H. Lee and C. Y. Jim. “Thermal and Humidification Effects of a Swimming Pool in Hong Kong’s Humid-Subtropical Summer”. In: Sustainable Cities and Society (Jul. 2023), p. 104816. ISSN: 2210-6707. DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2023.104816. (Visited on 07/25/2023).

[47] Z. Liang, T. Liu, Q. Li, et al. “Deciphering the Functional Landscape of Phosphosites with Deep Neural Network”. In: Cell Reports 42.9 (Sep. 2023). ISSN: 2211-1247. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.113048. (Visited on 09/19/2023).

[48] X. Lin, Z. Sha, J. Trimpert, et al. “The NSP4 T492I Mutation Increases SARS-CoV-2 Infectivity by Altering Non-Structural Protein Cleavage”. In: Cell Host & Microbe (Jul. 2023). ISSN: 1931-3128. DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2023.06.002. (Visited on 07/06/2023).

[49] J. Ma, X. Zhu, R. Hu, et al. “A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression of the Global Prevalence of Foodborne Vibrio Spp. Infection in Fishes: A Persistent Public Health Concern”. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin 187 (Feb. 2023), p. 114521. ISSN: 0025-326X. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2022.114521. (Visited on 01/10/2023).

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[51] D. G. Maghini, M. Dvorak, A. Dahlen, et al. “Quantifying Bias Introduced by Sample Collection in Relative and Absolute Microbiome Measurements”. In: Nat Biotechnol (Apr. 2023), pp. 1-11. ISSN: 1546-1696. DOI: 10.1038/s41587-023-01754-3. (Visited on 05/02/2023).

[52] S. Mehic. “Genomic and Physiologic Characterization of a Freshwater Photoarsenotroph, Cereibacter Azotoformans Str. ORIO, Isolated From Sediments Capable of Light-Dark Arsenic Redox Cycling”. PhD thesis. UC Santa Cruz, 2022. (Visited on 05/09/2023).

[53] E. Merino Tejero, D. Lashgari, R. García-Valiente, et al. “Multiscale Modeling of Germinal Center Recapitulates the Temporal Transition From Memory B Cells to Plasma Cells Differentiation as Regulated by Antigen Affinity-Based Tfh Cell Help”. In: Front Immunol 11 (Feb. 2021). ISSN: 1664-3224. DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.620716. (Visited on 03/03/2021).

[54] I. Mokrousov, A. Vyazovaya, E. Shitikov, et al. “Insight into Pathogenomics and Phylogeography of Hypervirulent and Highly-Lethal Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Strain Cluster”. In: BMC Infectious Diseases 23.1 (Jun. 2023), p. 426. ISSN: 1471-2334. DOI: 10.1186/s12879-023-08413-7. (Visited on 06/28/2023).

[55] R. D. Moore. “Fitting Power-Law Relations in Watershed Science and Analysis, with an Example Using the R Language”. In: Confluence: Journal of Watershed Science and Management 7.1 (Feb. 2024), pp. 14 pp-14 pp. ISSN: 2561-1836. DOI: 10.22230/jwsm.2024v7n1a53. (Visited on 02/20/2024).

[56] I. Navickaite, H. Holmes, L. Dondi, et al. “Occurrence and Characterization of rmtB-harbouring Salmonella and Escherichia Coli Isolates from a Pig Farm in the UK”. In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Apr. 2024), p. dkae102. ISSN: 0305-7453. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkae102. (Visited on 04/19/2024).

[57] G. Papacharalampous, H. Tyralis, S. M. Papalexiou, et al. “Global-Scale Massive Feature Extraction from Monthly Hydroclimatic Time Series: Statistical Characterizations, Spatial Patterns and Hydrological Similarity”. In: Science of The Total Environment 767 (May. 2021), p. 144612. ISSN: 0048-9697. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144612. (Visited on 03/03/2021).

[58] Y. Peng, Z. Lu, D. Pan, et al. “Viruses in Deep-Sea Cold Seep Sediments Harbor Diverse Survival Mechanisms and Remain Genetically Conserved within Species”. In: ISME J 17.10 (Oct. 2023), pp. 1774-1784. ISSN: 1751-7370. DOI: 10.1038/s41396-023-01491-0. (Visited on 04/11/2024).

[59] C. Plaza, P. García-Palacios, A. A. Berhe, et al. “Ecosystem Productivity Has a Stronger Influence than Soil Age on Surface Soil Carbon Storage across Global Biomes”. In: Commun Earth Environ 3.1 (Oct. 2022), pp. 1-8. ISSN: 2662-4435. DOI: 10.1038/s43247-022-00567-7. (Visited on 10/12/2022).

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The main function is new_scale() and its aliases new_scale_color() and new_scale_fill(). When added to a plot, every geom added after them will use a different scale.

As an example, let’s overlay some measurements over a contour map of topography using the beloved volcano.

# Equivalent to melt(volcano)
topography <- expand.grid(x = 1:nrow(volcano),
                          y = 1:ncol(volcano))
topography$z <- c(volcano)

# point measurements of something at a few locations
measurements <- data.frame(x = runif(30, 1, 80),
                           y = runif(30, 1, 60),
                           thing = rnorm(30))

ggplot(mapping = aes(x, y)) +
  geom_contour(data = topography, aes(z = z, color = stat(level))) +
  # Color scale for topography
  scale_color_viridis_c(option = "D") +
  # geoms below will use another color scale
  new_scale_color() +
  geom_point(data = measurements, size = 3, aes(color = thing)) +
  # Color scale applied to geoms added after new_scale_color()
  scale_color_viridis_c(option = "A")
#> Warning: `stat(level)` was deprecated in ggplot2 3.4.0.
#> ℹ Please use `after_stat(level)` instead.
#> This warning is displayed once every 8 hours.
#> Call `lifecycle::last_lifecycle_warnings()` to see where this warning was
#> generated.

If you want to create new scales for other aes, you can call new_scale with the name of the aes. For example, use


to add multiple linetype scales.