Derivate a discrete variable using finite differences

```
Derivate(
formula,
order = 1,
cyclical = FALSE,
fill = FALSE,
data = NULL,
sphere = FALSE,
a = 6371000,
equispaced = TRUE
)
Laplacian(
formula,
cyclical = FALSE,
fill = FALSE,
data = NULL,
sphere = FALSE,
a = 6371000,
equispaced = TRUE
)
Divergence(
formula,
cyclical = FALSE,
fill = FALSE,
data = NULL,
sphere = FALSE,
a = 6371000,
equispaced = TRUE
)
Vorticity(
formula,
cyclical = FALSE,
fill = FALSE,
data = NULL,
sphere = FALSE,
a = 6371000,
equispaced = TRUE
)
```

- formula
a formula indicating dependent and independent variables

- order
order of the derivative

- cyclical
logical vector of boundary condition for each independent variable

- fill
logical indicating whether to fill values at the boundaries with forward and backwards differencing

- data
optional data.frame containing the variables

- sphere
logical indicating whether to use spherical coordinates (see details)

- a
radius to use in spherical coordinates (defaults to Earth's radius)

- equispaced
logical indicating whether points are equispaced or not.

If there is one independent variable and one dependent variable, a numeric vector of the same length as the dependent variable. If there are two or more independent variables or two or more dependent variables, a list containing the directional derivatives of each dependent variables.

Each element of the return vector is an estimation of \(\frac{\partial^n x}{\partial y^{n}}\) by centred finite differences.

If `sphere = TRUE`

, then the first two independent variables are
assumed to be longitude and latitude (**in that order**) in degrees. Then, a
correction is applied to the derivative so that they are in the same units as
`a`

.

Using `fill = TRUE`

will degrade the solution near the edges of a non-cyclical
boundary. Use with caution.

`Laplacian()`

, `Divergence()`

and `Vorticity()`

are convenient wrappers that
call `Derivate()`

and make the appropriate sums. For `Divergence()`

and
`Vorticity()`

, `formula`

must be of the form `vx + vy ~ x + y`

(**in that order**).

Other meteorology functions:
`EOF()`

,
`GeostrophicWind()`

,
`WaveFlux()`

,
`thermodynamics`

,
`waves`

```
theta <- seq(0, 360, length.out = 20)*pi/180
theta <- theta[-1]
x <- cos(theta)
dx_analytical <- -sin(theta)
dx_finitediff <- Derivate(x ~ theta, cyclical = TRUE)[[1]]
plot(theta, dx_analytical, type = "l")
points(theta, dx_finitediff, col = "red")
# Curvature (Laplacian)
# Note the different boundary conditions for each dimension
variable <- expand.grid(lon = seq(0, 360, by = 3)[-1],
lat = seq(-90, 90, by = 3))
variable$z <- with(variable, cos(lat*pi/180*3) + sin(lon*pi/180*2))
variable <- cbind(
variable,
as.data.frame(Derivate(z ~ lon + lat, data = variable,
cyclical = c(TRUE, FALSE), order = 2)))
library(ggplot2)
ggplot(variable, aes(lon, lat)) +
geom_contour(aes(z = z)) +
geom_contour(aes(z = z.ddlon + z.ddlat), color = "red")
#> Warning: Removed 480 rows containing non-finite values (`stat_contour()`).
# The same as
ggplot(variable, aes(lon, lat)) +
geom_contour(aes(z = z)) +
geom_contour(aes(z = Laplacian(z ~ lon + lat, cyclical = c(TRUE, FALSE))),
color = "red")
#> Warning: Removed 480 rows containing non-finite values (`stat_contour()`).
```